Mediterranean or Dry Summer 
Subtropical Climate (Csa, Csb)

Latitude/Longitude = 37.45o N; 122.26o W
Average Annual Temperature (oC) = 13.75
Annual Temperature Range (oC) = 9
Total Annual Precipitation (mm) = 475
Summer Precipitation (mm) = 54
Winter Precipitation (mm) = 421

Small, thick evergreen leaves of the schlerophyll forest combats water loss during the drought conditions of the dry summer found in the Mediterranean climate. The picture depicts a schlerophyll scrub forest in the subalpine zone in New Zealand.

Photo credit: T. Detwyler
Used with permission

Geographic Distribution

  • Central California
  • central Chile
  • Mediterranean Sea borderlands
  • Iranian Highlands
  • Capetown area of South Africa
  • southwestern Australia

Controlling Factors

  • West coast location between 30o and 40o N and S latitude.
  • Alternating between Subtropical High in summer and Polar Front/Westerlies in winter.
  • Cyclonic precipitation during the winter.
  • Summer air masses: mTs, cT
  • Winter air masses: mT,mP, cP


  • Mild, moist winters, hot dry summers inland
  • Cool, often foggy coasts
  • High percentage of sunshine
  • High summer diurnal temperature range
  • Frost danger during winter


World Climates Contents | Interactive Climate Map


About | Topics | Textbook | Twitter | Home

© Michael Ritter Earth Online Media